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Lesson 14

The fact that most Americans live in urban areas does not mean that they reside in the center of large cities. In fact, more Americans live in the suburbs of large metropolitan areas than in the cities themselves.

The Bureau of the Census regards any area with more than 2500 people as an urban area, and does not consider boundaries of cities and suburbs. According to the Bureau, the political boundaries are less significant than the social and economic relationships and the transportation and communication systems that integrate a locale. The term used by the Bureau for an integrated metropolis is a MSA, which stands for Metropolitan Statistical Area. In general, an MSA is any area that contains a city and its surrounding suburbs and has a total population of 50,000 or more.

At the present time, the Bureau reports more than 280 MSAs, which together account for 75 percent of the US population. In addition, the Bureau recognizes eighteen megapolises, that is, continuous adjacent metropolitan areas. One of the most obvious megapolises includes a chain of hundreds of cities and suburbs across the states on the East Coast from Massachusetts to Virginia, including Boston, New York, and Washington, D. C. In the Eastern Corridor, as it is called, a population of 45 million inhabitants is concentrated. Another megapolis that is growing rapidly is the California coast from San Francisco through Los Angels to San Diego.

Translate:

Fakta bahwa kebanyakan orang Amerika tinggal di daerah perkotaan tidak berarti bahwa mereka berada di pusat kota-kota besar. Bahkan, lebih banyak warga Amerika tinggal di pinggiran wilayah metropolitan besar daripada di kota itu sendiri.

Biro Sensus menganggap wilayah dengan lebih dari 2500 orang sebagai daerah perkotaan, dan tidak mempertimbangkan batas-batas kota dan pinggiran kota. Menurut Biro, batas-batas politik kurang signifikan dibandingkan dengan hubungan sosial dan ekonomi dan sistem transportasi dan komunikasi yang mengintegrasikan lokal a. Istilah yang digunakan oleh Biro untuk metropolis terintegrasi adalah MSA, yang merupakan singkatan Statistik Metropolitan Area. Secara umum, MSA adalah area yang berisi kota dan pinggiran kota sekitarnya dan memiliki populasi total 50.000 atau lebih.
Pada saat ini, Biro melaporkan lebih dari 280 MSAS, yang bersama-sama menyumbang 75 persen dari penduduk AS. Selain itu, Biro mengakui delapan belas megapolises, yaitu terus menerus daerah metropolitan yang berdekatan. Salah satu megapolises paling jelas termasuk rantai ratusan kota dan pinggiran kota di seluruh negara bagian di Pantai Timur dari Massachusetts ke Virginia, termasuk Boston, New York, dan Washington, DC Di Koridor Timur, seperti yang disebut, populasi 45 juta penduduk terkonsentrasi. Megapolis lain yang berkembang pesat adalah pantai California dari San Francisco melalui Los Malaikat ke San Diego.

Vocabbullary

reside: tinggal
themselves: diri sendiri
Bureau: biro/kantor
regards: salam
boundaries: batas
suburbs: pinggiran kota
significant: penting
relationships: hubungan
integrate: menggabunkan
integrated: yang digabungkan
stands: berdiri
contains: Memuat/menampung/mengandung/mengetahui
surrounding: sekeliling
reports: laporan
recognizes: mengakui
adjacent: berdekatan
Eastern Corridor: koridor timur
inhabitants: penduduk
concentrated: pekat
rapidly: cepat

Main idea paragraph 1 :
The fact that the suburbs of large metropolitan areas more livable Americans

Main idea paragraph 2 :
Census bureau does not consider the boundaries of the city and suburbs a term use by the agency for integrated metropolis is MSA that contains the city and suburbs

Main idea paragraph 3 :
Megapolis including a chain of hundreds of cities and suburbs around the country in America

Summary:

The outskirts of major metropolitan areas more livable American citizens . Americans perceive the census bureau in the region with over 2500 inhabitants as urban areas and have been admitted eighteen continuous megalopolis that is the area adjacent metropolitan areas .

Question:

1.Which of the following is the best title for the passage?

The Bureau of the Census

2.According to the passage, where do most Americans live?

In the suburbs surrounding large cities

3.According to the Bureau of the Census, what is an urban area?

An area with 2500 people or more

4.Which of the following are NOT considered important in defining an urban area?

Political boundaries

5.The word integrate in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?

Unite

6.The word its in paragraph 2 refers to?

the MSA’s

 

7.The word adjacent in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to?

Beside each other

8.According to the passage, what is a megapolis?

Any number of continuous adjacent cities and suburbs

9.Why does the author mention the Eastern Corridor and the California coast in paragraph 3?

As examples of megapolises

 

 

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Lesson 13

Seismologists have devised two scales of measurement to enable them to describe and record information about earthquakes in quantitative terms. The most widely known measurement is the Richter scale, a numerical logarithmic scale developed and introduced by American seismologist Charles R. Richter in 1935. The purpose of the scale is to measure the amplitude of the largest trace recorded by a standard seismograph one hundred kilometers from the epicenter of an earthquake. Tables have been formulated to demonstrate the magnitude of any earthquake from any seismograph. For example, a one-unit increase in magnitude translates into an increase of times thirty in released energy. To put that another way, each number on the Richter scale represents an earthquake ten times as strong as one of the next lower magnitude. Specifically, an earthquake of magnitude 6 is ten times as strong as an earthquake of magnitude 5.

On the Richter scale, earthquakes of 6.75 are considered great and 7.0 to 7.75 are considered major. An earthquake that reads 4 to 5.5 would be expected to have caused localized damage, and those of magnitude 2 may be felt.

The other earthquake-assessment scale, introduced by the Italian seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli, measures the intensity of shaking, using gradations from 1 to 12. Because the effects of such shaking dissipate with distance from the epicenter of the earthquake, the Mercalli rating depends on the site of the measurement. Earthquakes of Mercalli 2 or 3 are basically the same as those of Richter 3 or 4; measurements of 11 or 12 on the Mercalli scale can be roughly correlated with magnitudes of 8 or 9 on the Richter scale. In either case, the relative power or energy released by the earthquake can be understood, and the population waits to hear how bad the earthquake that just passed really was.

It is estimated that almost one million earthquakes occur each year, but most of them are so minor that they pass undetected. In fact, more than one thousand earthquakes of a magnitude of 2 or lower on the Richter scale occur every day.

Translate:

Seismolog telah merancang dua skala pengukuran untuk memungkinkan mereka untuk menggambarkan dan merekam informasi tentang gempa bumi secara kuantitatif. Pengukuran yang paling banyak dikenal adalah skala Richter, skala logaritmik numerik dikembangkan dan diperkenalkan oleh seismolog Amerika Charles R. Richter pada tahun 1935. Tujuan dari skala ini adalah untuk mengukur amplitudo jejak terbesar dicatat oleh seismograf standar seratus kilometer dari episentrum gempa. Tabel telah dirumuskan untuk menunjukkan besarnya setiap gempa dari seismograf apapun. Misalnya, kenaikan satu unit besarnya diterjemahkan ke dalam peningkatan kali tiga puluh di dirilis energi. Untuk menempatkan bahwa cara lain, setiap nomor pada skala Richter merupakan gempa sepuluh kali sekuat salah satu besaran yang lebih rendah berikutnya. Secara khusus, gempa bumi berkekuatan 6 adalah sepuluh kali lebih kuat sebagai gempa bumi berkekuatan 5.

Pada skala Richter, gempa bumi 6,75 dianggap besar dan 7,0-7,75 dianggap besar. Gempa bumi yang berbunyi 4-5,5 diperkirakan akan menyebabkan kerusakan lokal, dan orang-orang besarnya 2 dapat dirasakan.

Skala gempa-penilaian lainnya, yang diperkenalkan oleh ahli gempa Italia Giuseppe Mercalli, mengukur intensitas gemetar, menggunakan gradasi dari 1 sampai 12. Karena efek seperti gemetar menghilang dengan jarak dari pusat gempa, rating Mercalli tergantung pada Situs pengukuran. Gempa bumi dari Mercalli 2 atau 3 pada dasarnya sama dengan Richter 3 atau 4; pengukuran dari 11 atau 12 pada skala Mercalli secara kasar dapat berkorelasi dengan besaran 8 atau 9 pada skala Richter. Dalam kedua kasus, kekuatan relatif atau energi yang dilepaskan oleh gempa dapat dipahami, dan penduduk menunggu untuk mendengar seberapa buruk gempa yang baru saja berlalu benar-benar.
Diperkirakan bahwa hampir satu juta gempa terjadi setiap tahun, tetapi kebanyakan mereka begitu kecil bahwa mereka lulus tidak terdeteksi. Bahkan, lebih dari seribu gempa bumi berkekuatan 2 atau lebih rendah pada skala Richter terjadi setiap hari.

Vocabbullary
Seismologists: seismolog
devised: dirancang
scales: sisik
measurement: pengukuran
earthquakes: gempa bumi
terms: istilah/bahasa
widely: sangat
Richter scale: skala richter
amplitude: amplitudo
largest: terbesar
epicenter: pusat gempa bumi
demonstrate: demonstrasi
magnitude: besarnya
released: terlepas
Specifically: khususnya
considered major: dianggap utama
expected: diharapkan
localized: lokal
damage: kerusakan
earthquake-assessment: penilaian gempa
gradations: gradasi
dissipate: menghilang
depends: tergantung
roughly: kira-kira
occur: terjadi
undetected: tanpa diketahui

Main idea :

paragraf 1

A description of the measurement of earthquake with magnitude

Paragraf 2

The size of the earthquake in the richter scale

Paragraf 3 :
Measuring the intensity of earthquake- assessment

Paragraf 4

Nearly one million earthquake occur each year, but most of them pass undetected.

Summary:

There are two scale to measure earthquakes, the Richter scale to measure earthquake size and scale Macalli to measure the intensity of shaking that occurs during earthquake

Question:

1. Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?

Earthquakes

2.According to information in the passage, what does the Richter scale record?

The amplitude of the largest trace

3.The word standard in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?

reliable

4. What is the value of the tables?

They allow us to interpret the magnitude of earthquakes

5.How does each number on the Richter scale compare?

Each magnitude is ten times stronger than the previous magnitude

6.What does the author means by the statement:

Because the effects of such shaking dissipate with distance from the epicenter of the earthquake, the Mercalli rating depends on the site of the measurement

The Mercalli rating will vary depending on the location of the measurement

7.The word undetected in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to?

with no notice

8.With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?

Only the Richter scale describes earthquakes in quantitative trms

9.The passage discusses all of the following in the explanation of the Richter scale EXCEPT?

 It measures the magnitude of earthquakes

Summary:
There are two scale to measure earthquakes, the Richter scale to measure earthquake size and scale Macalli to measure the intensity of shaking that occurs during earthquake

By

Lesson 12

Although noise, commonly defined as unwanted sound, is a widely recognized form of pollution, it is very difficult to measure because the discomfort experienced by different individuals is highly subjective and, therefore, variable. Exposure to lower levels of noise may be slightly imitating, whereas exposure to higher levels may actually cause hearing loss. Particularly in congested urban areas, the noise produced as a byproduct of our advancing technology causes physical and psychological harm but it also detracts from the quality of life for those exposed to it.

Unlike the eyes, which can be covered by the eyelids against strong light, the ear has no lid, and is, therefore, always open and vulnerable; noise penetrates without protection.

Noise causes effects that the hearer cannot control and to which the body never becomes accustomed. Loud noises instinctively signal danger to any organism with a hearing mechanism, including human beings. In response, heartbeat and respiration accelerate, blood vessels constrict, the skin pales, and muscles tense. In fact, there is a general increase in functioning brought about by the flow of adrenaline released in response to fear, and some of these responses persist even longer than the noise, occasionally as long as thirty minutes after the sound has ceased.

Because noise is unavoidable in a complex, industrial society, we are constantly responding in the same ways that we would respond to danger. Recently, researchers have concluded that noise and our response may be much more than an annoyance. It may be a serious threat to physical and psychological health and well-being, causing damage not only to the ear and brain but also to the heart and stomach. We have long known that hearing loss is America’s number one nonfatal health problem, but now we are learning that some of us with heart disease and ulcers may be victims of noise as well. Fetuses exposed to noise tend to be overactive, they cry easily, and they are more sensitive to gastrointestinal problems after birth. In addition, the psychological effect of noise is very important. Nervousness, irritability, tension and anxiety increase, affecting the quality of rest during sleep, and the efficiency of activities during waking hours, as well as the way that we interact with one another.

Translate:
Meskipun kebisingan, umumnya didefinisikan sebagai suara yang tidak diinginkan, adalah bentuk yang diakui secara luas dari polusi, sangat sulit untuk diukur karena ketidaknyamanan yang dialami oleh individu yang berbeda sangat subjektif dan, karena itu, variabel. Paparan tingkat yang lebih rendah dari kebisingan mungkin sedikit meniru, sedangkan paparan tingkat yang lebih tinggi benar-benar dapat menyebabkan gangguan pendengaran. Khususnya di daerah perkotaan padat, suara yang dihasilkan sebagai produk sampingan dari teknologi kami memajukan menyebabkan kerusakan fisik dan psikologis tetapi juga mengurangi dari kualitas hidup bagi mereka terkena itu.

Berbeda dengan mata, yang dapat ditutupi oleh kelopak mata terhadap cahaya yang kuat, telinga tidak memiliki tutup, dan karena itu, selalu terbuka dan rentan; kebisingan menembus tanpa perlindungan.

Kebisingan menyebabkan efek yang pendengar tidak dapat mengontrol dan yang tubuh tidak pernah menjadi terbiasa. Suara keras secara naluriah sinyal bahaya bagi setiap organisme dengan mekanisme pendengaran, termasuk manusia. Menanggapi, detak jantung dan pernapasan mempercepat, pembuluh darah mengerut, kulit artinya jika, dan otot tegang. Bahkan, ada peningkatan umum dalam berfungsi dibawa oleh aliran adrenalin dilepaskan dalam menanggapi takut, dan beberapa tanggapan ini bertahan lebih lama dari kebisingan, kadang-kadang selama tiga puluh menit setelah suara telah berhenti.

Karena suara tidak dapat dihindari dalam masyarakat industri yang kompleks, kita terus-menerus merespon dengan cara yang sama bahwa kita akan menanggapi bahaya. Baru-baru ini, para peneliti telah menyimpulkan bahwa suara dan respon kita mungkin jauh lebih dari sebuah gangguan. Ini mungkin menjadi ancaman serius bagi kesehatan fisik dan psikologis dan kesejahteraan, menyebabkan kerusakan tidak hanya pada telinga dan otak, tetapi juga ke jantung dan perut. Kami telah lama mengetahui bahwa gangguan pendengaran adalah nomor satu masalah kesehatan fatal Amerika, tetapi sekarang kita belajar bahwa sebagian dari kita dengan penyakit jantung dan bisul mungkin korban suara juga. Janin terkena kebisingan cenderung terlalu aktif, mereka menangis dengan mudah, dan mereka lebih sensitif terhadap masalah pencernaan setelah lahir. Selain itu, efek psikologis dari kebisingan sangat penting. Gugup, lekas marah, ketegangan dan kecemasan meningkat, mempengaruhi kualitas istirahat selama tidur, dan efisiensi kegiatan selama jam bangun, serta cara kita berinteraksi dengan satu sama lain.

Vocabullaries
commonly: biasanya
widely: sangat
recognized: diakui
pollution: polusi
difficult: sulit
measure: mengukur
discomfort: kegelisahan
experienced: Berpengalaman
therefore: oleh karena itu
Exposure: pencahayaan
lower: menurunkan
slightly: sedikit
imitating: meniru
hearing: pendengaran
Particularly: khususnya
congested: padat
advancing: memajukan
detracts: mengurangi
covered: mencakup
against: terhadap
vulnerable: peka
accustomed: biasa
Loud: nyaring, lantang
instinctively: secara instinktif
heartbeat: denyut jantung
accelerate: mempercepat
blood vessels: pembuh darah
Constrict: Mengencangkan, menegangkan, menyempitkan
muscles: otot,urat
tense: tegang
fear: takut
occasionally: kadang-kadang
ceased: berhenti
unavoidable: Tak terelakkan, tak dapat dihindari
researchers: penelitian
concluded: menyimpulkan
annoyance: gangguan
disease: penyakit
gastrointestinal: pencernaan

Main idea Paragraph 1:
A noise defined as unwanted sound

Main idea paragraph 2:
This paragraph tell us about differences eye and ear

Main idea paragraph 3 :
the effect of noise causes the listener is not controlled

Main idea paragraph 4:
the researchers concluded that the noise becomes a threat to the physical health

Summary:
the noise is defined as noise that disturb the individual discomfort because the ears are always open and vulnerable to noise, in contrast to the eye that can be covered by an eyelid.

Questions:

1. What is the author’s main point?

Noise may pose a serious threat to our physical and psychological health

2. According to the text, what is noise?

Unwanted sound

3. What is the reason that is noise difficult to measure?

It causes hearing loss

4. What is the synonym of the word congested in paragraph 1?

Crowded

5. Align with the text, people respond to loud noise in the same way as they respond to?

Danger

6. What is the meaning of phrase as well in paragraph 4?

Also

7. It can be concluded from this text that the eye?

Enjoys greater protection than the ear

8. Write a conclusion of the text in a statement that It would be the author most probably agree!

Noise is an unavoidable problem in an industrial society