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Lesson 11

The nuclear family, consisting of a mother, father, and their children, may be more an American ideal than an American reality. Of course, the so called traditional American family was always more varied than we had been led to believe, reflecting the very different racial, ethnic, class, and religious customs among different American groups, but today diversity is even more obvious.

The most recent government census statistics reveal that only about one third of all current American families fits the traditional mold of two parents and their children, and another third consists of married couples who either have no children or have none still living at home. An analysis of the remaining one third of the population reveals that about 20 percent of the total number of American households are single people, the most common descriptor being women over sixty-five years of age. A small percentage, about 3 percent of the total, consists of unmarried people who choose to live together; the rest, about 7 percent, are single parents, with at least one child.

There are several easily identifiable reasons for the growing number of single-parent households. First, the sociological phenomenon of single-parent households reflects changes in cultural attitudes toward divorce and also toward unmarried mothers. A substantial number of adults become single parents as a result of divorce. In addition, the number of children born to unmarried women who choose to keep their children and rear them by themselves has increased dramatically. Finally, there is a small percentage of single-parent families that have resulted from untimely death. Today, these varied family types are typical and, therefore, normal.

In addition, because many families live far from relatives, close friends have become a more important part of family life than ever before. The vast majority of Americans claim that they have people in their lives whom they regard as family although they are not related. A view of family that only accepts the traditional nuclear arrangement not only ignores the reality of modern American family life, but also undervalues the familial bonds created in alternatives family arrangements. Apparently, many Americans are achieving supportive relationships in family forms other than the traditional one.

Translate:

Keluarga inti, yang terdiri dari ibu, ayah, dan anak-anak mereka, mungkin lebih ideal Amerika dari sebuah realitas Amerika. Tentu saja, yang disebut keluarga tradisional Amerika selalu lebih bervariasi dari yang kita telah dituntun untuk percaya, mencerminkan sangat berbeda ras, etnis, kelas, dan adat istiadat keagamaan di kalangan kelompok Amerika yang berbeda, namun keragaman hari bahkan lebih jelas.

Statistik sensus pemerintah terbaru mengungkapkan bahwa hanya sekitar sepertiga dari semua keluarga Amerika saat ini sesuai dengan cetakan tradisional dua orang tua dan anak-anak mereka, dan sepertiga lainnya terdiri dari pasangan suami istri yang baik tidak memiliki anak atau tidak masih tinggal di rumah. Sebuah analisis yang ketiga yang tersisa dari penduduk mengungkapkan bahwa sekitar 20 persen dari total jumlah rumah tangga di Amerika adalah orang-orang tunggal, deskripsi yang paling umum adalah wanita di atas enam puluh lima tahun. Sebagian kecil, sekitar 3 persen dari total, terdiri dari orang-orang yang belum menikah yang memilih untuk hidup bersama; sisanya, sekitar 7 persen, adalah orang tua tunggal, dengan setidaknya satu anak.

Ada beberapa alasan mudah diidentifikasi untuk meningkatnya jumlah rumah tangga orang tua tunggal. Pertama, fenomena sosiologis rumah tangga orang tua tunggal mencerminkan perubahan sikap budaya terhadap perceraian dan juga terhadap ibu yang tidak menikah. Sejumlah besar orang dewasa menjadi orang tua tunggal akibat perceraian. Selain itu, jumlah anak yang lahir dari ibu yang tidak menikah yang memilih untuk menjaga anak-anak mereka dan belakang mereka sendiri telah meningkat secara dramatis. Akhirnya, ada persentase kecil dari keluarga orang tua tunggal yang telah dihasilkan dari kematiannya. Hari ini, jenis keluarga bervariasi ini khas dan, oleh karena itu, normal.
Selain itu, karena banyak keluarga hidup jauh dari keluarga, teman-teman dekat telah menjadi bagian yang lebih penting dari kehidupan keluarga daripada sebelumnya. Sebagian besar orang Amerika mengklaim bahwa mereka memiliki orang-orang dalam kehidupan mereka yang mereka anggap sebagai keluarga meskipun mereka tidak berhubungan. Pandangan dari keluarga yang hanya menerima pengaturan nuklir tradisional tidak hanya mengabaikan realitas kehidupan keluarga modern Amerika, tetapi juga undervalues ​​obligasi kekeluargaan dibuat dalam pengaturan alternatif keluarga. Ternyata, banyak orang Amerika yang mencapai hubungan yang mendukung dalam bentuk keluarga lain dari yang tradisional.

Vocabularies:

Consisting : terdiri

Reality : kenyataan
Varied : bermacam-macam
Reflecting : mencerminkan
Diversity : keanekaragaman/perbedaan
Government : pemerintah
Reveal : menyatakan
Current : aliran
Fits : cocok/menyeseuaikan
Mold : membentuk
Reveals : mengungkapkan/memperlihatkan
Household : rumah tangga
Common : umum
descriptor : keterangan
percentage : nilai/keuntungan
least : paling sedikit
identifiable : memperkenalkan
growing : bertumbuh
toward : menuju
divorce : menceraikan
increased : meningkat
far : jauh
majority : mayoritas/sebagian besar
Claim : tuntutan
regard : menganggap/melihat
arrangement : pengaturan

MAIN IDEA:
Paragraph 1:
The traditional american family
Paragraph 2:
census statistics in american families
Paragraph 3:
The identification number of single parents households
Paragraph 4:
In the united states could be considered a close friend of the family because they are far away from family

Summary:
The nuclear family, consisting of a mother, father, and their children, may be more an American ideal than an American reality.

Questions:
1. Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?
The traditional American family

2. The word current in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by which of the following
Typical

3. The word none in paragraph 2 refers to?
Parents

4. How many single people were identified in the survey?
One third of the total surveyed

5. Who generally constitutes a one-person household?
A single woman in her late sixties

6. The word undervalues in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to?
does not appreciate

7. The passage discusses all of the following reasons for an increase in single-parent households EXCEPT?
increased interest in parenting by fathers

8. With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?
There have always been a wide variety of family arrangements in the United States

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Lesson 10

The influenza virus is a single molecule composed of millions of individual atoms. Although bacteria can be considered a type of plant, secreting poisonous substances into the body of organism they attack, viruses, like the influenza virus, are living organisms themselves. We may consider them regular chemical molecules since they have strictly defined atomic structure; but on the other hand, we must also consider them as being alive since they are able to multiply in unlimited quantities.

An attack brought on by the presence of the influenza virus in the body produces a temporary immunity, but, unfortunately, the protection is against only the type of virus that caused the influenza. Because the disease can be produced by any one of three types, referred to as A, B, or C and many varieties within each type, immunity to one virus will not prevent infection by other types or strains. Protection from the influenza virus is also complicated by the fact that immunity to a specific virus persists for less than a year. Finally, because a virus may periodically change characteristics, the problem of mutation makes it difficult to carry out a successful immunization program. Vaccines are often ineffective against newly evolving strains.

Approximately every ten years, worldwide epidemics of influenza called pandemics occur. Thought to be caused by new strains of type-A virus, these pandemic viruses have spread rapidly, infecting millions of people.

Vaccines have been developed that have been found to be 70 to 90 percent effective for at least six months against either A or B types of the influenza virus, and a genetically engineered live-virus vaccine is under development. Currently, the United States Public Health Service recommends annual vaccination only for those at greatest risk of complications from influenza, including pregnant women and the elderly. Nevertheless, many other members of the general population request and receive flu shots every year, and even more are immunized during epidemic or pandemic cycles.

TRANSLATE:

Virus influenza adalah molekul tunggal yang terdiri dari jutaan atom individu. Meskipun bakteri dapat dianggap sebagai jenis tanaman, mensekresi zat beracun ke dalam tubuh organisme mereka menyerang, virus, seperti virus influenza, adalah organisme hidup sendiri. Kita mungkin menganggap mereka molekul kimia biasa karena mereka telah didefinisikan secara ketat struktur atom; tetapi di sisi lain, kita juga harus mempertimbangkan mereka sebagai hidup karena mereka dapat berkembang biak dalam jumlah terbatas.

Sebuah serangan yang disebabkan oleh adanya virus influenza dalam tubuh menghasilkan kekebalan sementara, namun, sayangnya, perlindungan melawan hanya jenis virus yang menyebabkan influenza. Karena penyakit ini dapat diproduksi oleh salah satu dari tiga jenis, disebut sebagai A, B, atau C dan banyak varietas dalam setiap jenis, kekebalan terhadap salah satu virus tidak akan mencegah infeksi oleh jenis atau strain lainnya. Perlindungan dari virus influenza juga rumit oleh fakta bahwa kekebalan terhadap virus tertentu berlangsung selama kurang dari satu tahun. Akhirnya, karena virus dapat mengubah karakteristik berkala, masalah mutasi membuat sulit untuk melaksanakan program imunisasi sukses. Vaksin biasanya tidak efektif terhadap strain baru berkembang.

Kira-kira setiap sepuluh tahun, epidemi di seluruh dunia influenza disebut pandemi terjadi. Diduga disebabkan oleh strain baru dari tipe A virus, virus ini pandemi telah menyebar dengan cepat, menginfeksi jutaan orang.

Vaksin telah dikembangkan yang telah ditemukan menjadi 70 sampai 90 persen efektif untuk setidaknya enam bulan terhadap baik jenis A atau B dari virus influenza, dan vaksin virus hidup rekayasa genetika adalah dalam pengembangan. Saat ini, Amerika Serikat Public Health Service merekomendasikan vaksinasi tahunan hanya untuk mereka yang berisiko terbesar komplikasi dari influenza, termasuk wanita hamil dan orang tua. Namun demikian, banyak anggota lain dari permintaan populasi umum dan menerima suntikan flu setiap tahun, dan bahkan lebih diimunisasi selama epidemi atau pandemi siklus.

VOCABULARIES:

poisonous : Beracun

organism : organisme / makhluk hidup

attack : menyerang

strictly : persis

brought : membawa

presence : kehadiran

unfortunately : sungguh sial

disease : penyakit

prevent : mencegah

strains : tegangan

persists : Bertahan

Vaccines : vaksin

ineffective : tidak efektif

developed : mengembangkan

engineered : insiyur

greatest : terbesar

risk : resiko

pregnant women :  wanita hamil

elderly : lebih tua

receive : menerima

MAIN IDEA:

paragraf 1 :

Main idea:

The definition of influenza virus

Paragraf 2 :

Main idea:
Kinds of influenza virus

Paragraf 3 :

Main idea:
pandemics occur every ten years

Paragraf 4 :

Main idea:
Vaccines of influenza virus always thrive

SUMMARY:

The influenza virus is a single molecule composed of millions of individual atoms.

QUESTION:

1. Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?
The influenza virus

2.According to this passage, bacteria are?

plants

3.The word strictly in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?

exactly

4.The atomic structure of viruses?

is strictly defined

5.Why does the author say that viruses are alive?

They multiply

6.The word unlimited in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?

very large

7.According to the passage, how does the body react to the influenza virus?

It produces immunity to the type and strain of virus that invaded it

8.The passage discusses all of the following as characteristics of pandemics EXCEPT?

they are regional outbreaks

 

 

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Rangkuman Pertemuan 9 (Konsis)

PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM

Pengembangan sistem adalah suatu sistem yg baru untuk menggantikan sistem yang lama secara keseluruhan atau memperbaiki sistem yang ada.

ALASAN PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM
1. Adanya permasalahan pada sistem yang lama
– Ketidakberesan sistem yang lama
– Pertumbuhan organisasi
2. Untuk meraih kesempatan ( opportunities )
3. Adanya instruksi ( directivities )

Jika sudah ada sistem yang baru di harapkan adanya peningkatan secara PIECES,yang di maksud:

Permormance => kinerja
Information => informasi
Economy => ekonomis
Control => pengendalian
Efficiency => efisiensi
Services => pelayanan

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Lesson 9

A geyser is the result of underground water under the combined conditions of high temperatures and increased pressure beneath the surface of the Earth. Since temperature rises about 1F for every sixty feet under the Earth surface, and pressure increases with depth, water that seeps down in cracks and fissures until it reaches very hot rocks in the Earth’s interior becomes heated to a temperature of approximately 290°F.

Water under pressure can remain liquid at temperatures above its normal boiling point, but in a geyser, the weight of the water nearer the surface exerts so much pressure on the deeper water that the water at the bottom of the geyser reaches much higher temperatures than does the water at the top of the geyser. As the deep water becomes hotter, and consequently lighter, it suddenly rises to the surface and shoots out of the surface in the form of steam and hot water. In turn, the explosion agitates all the water in the geyser reservoir, creating further explosions. Immediately afterward, the water again flows into the underground reservoir, heating begins, and the process repeats itself.

In order to function, then, a geyser must have a source of heat, a reservoir where water can be stored until the temperature rises to an unstable point, an opening through which the hot water and steam can escape, and underground channels for resupplying water after an eruption.

Favorable conditions for geyser exist in regions of geologically recent volcanic activity, especially in areas of more than average precipitation. For the most part, geysers are located in three regions of the world: New Zealand, Iceland, and the Yellowstone National Park area of the United States. The most famous geyser in the world is Old Faithful in Yellowstone Park. Old Faithful erupts every hour, rising to a height of 125 to 170 feet and expelling more than ten thousand gallons during each eruption. Old Faithful earned its name because, unlike most geysers, it has never failed to erupt on schedule even once in eighty years of observation.

Translate:

Sebuah geyser adalah hasil dari air bawah tanah di bawah kondisi gabungan dari suhu tinggi dan peningkatan tekanan di bawah permukaan bumi. Karena suhu naik sekitar 1F untuk setiap enam puluh meter di bawah permukaan bumi, dan tekanan meningkat dengan kedalaman air yang merembes ke dalam celah-celah dan celah hingga mencapai batuan yang sangat panas di interior bumi menjadi dipanaskan sampai suhu sekitar 290 ° F .
Air di bawah tekanan bisa tetap cair pada suhu di atas titik didih normal, tetapi dalam geyser, berat air dekat permukaan diberikannya begitu banyak tekanan pada air yang lebih dalam bahwa air di bagian bawah geyser mencapai temperatur yang lebih tinggi daripada air di bagian atas geyser. Sebagai air yang dalam menjadi lebih panas, dan akibatnya lebih ringan, tiba-tiba naik ke permukaan dan tunas dari permukaan dalam bentuk uap dan air panas. Pada gilirannya, ledakan agitates semua air di waduk geyser, menciptakan ledakan lebih lanjut. Segera setelah itu, air kembali mengalir ke reservoir bawah tanah, pemanasan dimulai, dan proses berulang.
Untuk fungsi, kemudian, geyser harus memiliki sumber panas, reservoir di mana air dapat disimpan sampai suhu naik ke titik stabil, pembukaan melalui mana air panas dan uap dapat melarikan diri, dan saluran bawah tanah untuk resupplying air setelah letusan.
Kondisi yang menguntungkan untuk geyser yang ada di daerah aktivitas gunung berapi geologis, terutama di daerah lebih dari rata-rata curah hujan. Untuk sebagian besar, geyser di tiga wilayah di dunia: Selandia Baru, Islandia, dan daerah Taman Nasional Yellowstone di Amerika Serikat. Geyser paling terkenal di dunia adalah Old Faithful di Yellowstone Park. Old Faithful meletus setiap jam, naik ke ketinggian 125-170 meter dan mengusir lebih dari sepuluh ribu galon selama setiap letusan. Old Faithful mendapatkan namanya karena, tidak seperti kebanyakan geyser, itu tidak pernah gagal meledak pada jadwal bahkan sekali dalam delapan puluh tahun pengamatan.

VOCABULARIES :

underground : Di bawah tanah

increased : meningkatkan

pressure : tekanan

beneath : di bawah

surface : permukaan

seeps : meresap ,merembes

cracks : celah ,retak

fissures : celah

approximately : perkiraan

liquid : cairan

nearer : lebih dekat

exerts : mendesak

higher : lebih tinggi

hotter : lebih panas

lighter : lebih ringan

explosion : ledakan

agitates : goncangan

reservoir : waduk

Further : lebih lanjut

immediately : seketika,segera

unstable : tidak stabil

resupplying : memasok kembali

favorable : baik,menyenangkan

exspelling : mengusir

MAIN IDEA :

Paragraf 1 :

a geyser is the result of underground water under the combined conditions of high temperatures of approximately 290°F.

paragraf 2:

tell about how geysers to function

paragraf 3:

the condition of geysers to function

paragraf 4:

old favorable of geyser

SUMMARY:

Geyser is the result of underground water which has a high temperature pressure to rise after being under the earth’s surfface

QUESTION:

 

1.Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?

the nature of geysers

2. In order for geyser to erupt?

water must flow underground

3. The word it in paragraph 1 refers to?

water

4. As depth increases ?

both pressure and temperature increase

5. Why does the author mention New Zealand and Iceland in paragraph 4?

to provide examples of areas where geysers are located

6. How often does old faithful erupt?

every 60 minutes

7. The word  expelling in paragraph 4 closed in meaning to?

discharging

 

8.What does the author mean by the statement :
Old Faithful earned its name because, unlike most geysers, it has never failed to erupt on schedule even once in eighty years of observation

Old faithful always erupts on schedule

9.According to the passage, what is required for a geyser to function?

A source of heat, a place for water to collect, an opening, and underground channels

 

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Diksi

pertanyaan:

Carilah karya ilmiah yang tersedia di widuri minimal 4 lembar di bagian BAB II kemudian analisislah karya ilmiah tersebut hingga sesuai dengan diksi atau pilihan kata yang tepat!

Status:

tercapai 100%

pernyataan:

telah mengerjakan tugas

Bukti:

Kesalahan penulisan diksi :
Defenisi

Pada karya ilmiah yang di analisis terdapat kata defenisi termasuk kesalahan diksi dalam peranti kebakuan dan ketidakbakuan kata, karena kebanyakan masyarakat tidak dapat memahaminya,yang seharusnya di tulis : Definisi

Saranan

Pada karya ilmiah yang di analisis terdapat kata saranan termasuk kesalahan diksi dalam peranti kebakuan dan ketidakbakuan kata, karena kebanyakan masyarakat tidak dapat memahaminya,yang seharusnya di tulis : Sarana

Mediaantara

Pada karya ilmiah yang di analisis terdapat kata mediaantara termasuk kesalahan diksi dalam peranti kebakuan dan ketidakbakuan kata, karena kebanyakan masyarakat tidak dapat memahaminya,yang seharusnya di tulis : Mediantara
Temdapat

Pada karya ilmiah yang di analisis terdapat kata temdapat termasuk kesalahan diksi dalam peranti kebakuan dan ketidakbakuan kata, karena kebanyakan masyarakat tidak dapat memahaminya,yang seharusnya di tulis : Terdapat

diluar Batas

Pada karya ilmiah yang di analisis terdapat kata diluar Batas termasuk kesalahan diksi karena menggunakan huruf besar di tengah kalimat, yang seharusnya di tulis : diluar batas

Di ambil dari karya ilmiah : http://widuri.raharja.info/index.php?title=SI1011464481

 

 

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Lesson 8

Human memory, formerly believed to be rather inefficient, is really much more sophisticated than that of a computer. Researchers approaching the problem from a variety of points of view have all concluded that there is a great deal more stored in ohur minds than has been generally supposed. Dr. Wilder Penfield, a Canadian neurosurgeon, proved that by stimulating their brains electrically, he could elicit the total recall of complex events in his subjects’ lives. Even dreams and other minor events supposedly forgotten for many years suddenly emerged in detail.

The memory trace is the term for whatever forms the internal representation of the specific information about the event stored in the memory. Assumed to have been made by structural changes in the brain, the memory trace is not subject to direct observation but is rather a theoretical construct that is used to speculate about how information presented at a particular time can cause performance at a later time. Most theories include the strength of the memory trace as a variable in the degree of learning, retention, and retrieval possible for a memory. One theory is that the fantastic capacity for storage in the brain is the result of an almost unlimited combination of interconnections between brain cells, stimulated by patterns of activity. Repeated references to the same information support recall. Or, to say that another way, improved performance is the result of strengthening the chemical bonds in the memory.

Psychologists generally divide memory into at least two types, short-term and long-term memory, which combine to form working memory. Short-term memory contains what we are actively focusing on at any particular time, but items are not retained longer than twenty or thirty seconds without verbal rehearsal. We use short-term memory when we look up a telephone number and repeat it to ourselves until we can place the call. On the other hand, long-term memory can store facts, concepts, and experiences after we stop thinking about them. All conscious processing of information, as in problem solving for example, involves both short-term and long-term memory. As we repeat, rehearse, and recycle information, the memory trace is strengthened, allowing that information to move from short-term memory to long-term memory.

TRANSLATE:

Memori manusia, sebelumnya diyakini lebih efisien, benar-benar jauh lebih canggih daripada komputer. Para peneliti mendekati masalah dari berbagai sudut pandang memiliki semua menyimpulkan bahwa ada lebih banyak lagi yang tersimpan dalam pikiran kita daripada umumnya telah seharusnya. Dr. Wilder Penfield, seorang ahli bedah saraf Kanada, membuktikan bahwa dengan merangsang otak mereka elektrik, ia bisa memperoleh total recall peristiwa yang kompleks dalam kehidupan rakyatnya. Bahkan mimpi dan peristiwa kecil lainnya seharusnya dilupakan selama bertahun-tahun tiba-tiba muncul secara rinci.

Memori jejak adalah istilah untuk apa pun yang membentuk representasi internal dari informasi spesifik tentang peristiwa yang tersimpan dalam memori. Diasumsikan telah dibuat oleh perubahan struktural dalam otak, jejak memori tidak tunduk pada observasi langsung, tetapi lebih merupakan konstruksi teoritis yang digunakan untuk berspekulasi tentang bagaimana informasi yang disajikan pada waktu tertentu dapat menyebabkan kinerja di lain waktu. Kebanyakan teori meliputi kekuatan jejak memori sebagai variabel dalam tingkat belajar, retensi, dan pengambilan mungkin untuk memori. Satu teori adalah bahwa kapasitas yang fantastis untuk penyimpanan di otak adalah hasil dari kombinasi hampir tak terbatas dari interkoneksi antara sel-sel otak, yang dirangsang oleh pola aktivitas. Referensi berulang kali sama dukungan informasi recall. Atau, untuk mengatakan bahwa cara lain, peningkatan kinerja adalah hasil dari penguatan ikatan kimia dalam memori.

Psikolog umumnya membagi memori menjadi setidaknya dua jenis, jangka pendek dan memori jangka panjang, yang bergabung untuk membentuk memori kerja. Memori jangka pendek berisi apa yang kita aktif berfokus pada pada waktu tertentu, tetapi barang tidak dipertahankan lebih lama dari dua puluh atau tiga puluh detik tanpa lisan latihan. Kami menggunakan memori jangka pendek ketika kita mencari nomor telepon dan ulangi untuk diri kita sendiri sampai kita dapat menempatkan panggilan. Di sisi lain, memori jangka panjang dapat menyimpan fakta, konsep, dan pengalaman setelah kami berhenti berpikir tentang mereka. Semua proses sadar informasi, seperti dalam pemecahan masalah misalnya, melibatkan baik jangka pendek dan memori jangka panjang. Seperti yang kita ulangi, berlatih, dan mendaur ulang informasi, jejak memori diperkuat, sehingga informasi tersebut untuk berpindah dari memori jangka pendek ke memori jangka panjang.

VOCABULARIES:

inefficient : Efisien

more sophisticated : Lebih canggih

Researchers : Para peneliti

approaching : Mendekati

variety : Berbagai macam

concluded : Menyimpulkan

stored : Tersimpan

elicit : Memperoleh

trace : Jejak

representation : Perwakilan

theoretical : Menurut teori

speculate : Mempertimbangkan,memikirkan

retention : ingatan

retrieval : Perbaikan

storage : Penyimpanan

brain cells : Sel sel otak

stimulated : Yang dirangsang

improved : Di tingkatkan

strengthening : Penguatan

short-term : Jangka pendek

long-term : Jangka panjang

retained : Di pertahankan

verbal rehearsal : Latian lisan

store facts : Menyimpan fakta

experiences : Pengalaman

MAIN IDEA :

Paragraf 1 :
Human memory is more sophisticated than a computer.

paragraf 2 :

The memory trace is the term for whatever forms the internal representation of the specific information about the event stored in the memory

paragraf 3 :
Psychologists generally divide memory into at least two types, short-term and long-term memory, which combine to form working memory.

SUMMARY :
Human memory is more sophisticated than a computer

QUESTION :

 

1. Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?

 Human memory

2. The word formerly in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?

 in the past

3. Compared with a computer, human memory is?

more complex

4. How did Penfield stimulate dreams and other minor events from the past?

By electrical stimulation

5. According to passage, the capacity for storage in the brain?

 is stimulated by patterns of activity

6. The word bonds in paragraph 2 means?

connections

7. Why does the author mention looking up a telephone number?

It is an example of short-term memory

8. All of the following are true of a memory trace EXCEPT that?

it is able to be observed directly by investigators

9. With which of the following statements would the author most likely agree?

The mind has a much greater capacity for memory than that was previously believed