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Assignment 3 (Bahasa Indonesia)

1. Peringatan hari Sumpah Pemuda beberapa mahasiswa menampilkan berbagai kegiatan kesenian.
2. Dalam menentukan tujuan penelitian, harus disesuaikan dengan rumusan masalah yang ada.
3. Tahap implementasi sistem dapat terdiri dari langkah merencanakan rencana implementasi, melakukan kegiatan implementasi, dan tindak lanjut implementasi.
4. Output yang diperoleh adalah merupakan hasil dari penelitian Tridarma Perguruan Tinggi antara dosen dengan mahasiswa yang diwadahi oleh Raharja Enrichment Centre.
5. Segala usaha dilakukan dalam menangani masalah devaluasi dan perbaikan masalah keuangan.
6. Bagi segenap sivitas akademika harap bergabung dengan para tamu.
7. Jembatan layang itu belum selesai seperti yang sudah direncanakan disebabkan karena dananya belum dapat dicairkan semua.
8. Pada tanggal 2 Februari 2000 AMIK Raharja Informatika menjadi satu-satunya perguruan tinggi yang menjalankan studi formal untuk program Diploma I (DI) dengan memberikan gelar Ahli Pratama dan Program Diploma II (DII) dengan memberikan gelar Ahli Muda dan Diploma III (DIII) dengan memberikan gelar Ahli Madya kepada lulusannya.
9. soal itu saya belum jelas

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Lesson 7

# READING COMPREHENSION 7 #

Perhaps it was his own lack of adequate schooling that inspired Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated. While he was still a boy, his father and older brother died, and he became responsible for supporting his family. Like most of the children in his town, he attended school only two or three months a year. Later, with the help of several teachers, he was able to study law and become a member of the Massachusetts bar, but he never forgot those early struggles.

While serving in the Massachusetts legislature, he signed an historic education bill that set up a state board of education. Without regret, he gave up his successful legal practice and political career to become the first secretary of the board. There he exercised an enormous influence during the critical period of reconstruction that brought into existence the American graded elementary school as a substitute for the older district school system. Under his leadership, the curriculum was restructured, the school year was increased to a minimum of six months, and mandatory schooling was extended to age sixteen. Other important reforms that came into existence under Mann’s guidance included the establishment of state normal schools for teacher training, institutes for in service teacher education, and lyceums for adult education. He was also instrumental in improving salaries for teachers and creating school libraries.

Mann’s ideas about school reform were developed and distributed in the twelve annual reports to the state of Massachusetts that he wrote during his tenure as secretary of education. Considered quite radical at the time, the Massachusetts reforms later served as a model for the nation’s educational system. Mann was formally recognized as the father of public education.

During his lifetime, Horace Mann worked tirelessly to extend educational opportunities to agrarian families and the children of poor laborers. In one of his last speeches he summed up his philosophy of education and life: “Be ashamed to die until you have won some victory for humanity.” Surely, his own life was an example of that philosophy.

# VOCABULARIES #

1. Accomplish = memenuhi

2. Reconstruction = rekonstruksi

3. Restructured = mengatur kembali

4. Establishment = penetapan

5. Considered = mempertimbangkan

6. Recognized = mengenali

7. Tirelessly = tanpa keletihan

8. Opportunities = peluang

9. Adequate = cukup

10. Responsible = bertanggung jawab

11. Legislature = badan pembuat undang – undang

12. Enormous = maha besar

13. Increased = meningkat

14. Perhaps = barangkali

15. Guidance = bimbingan

16. Annual = tahunan

17. Philosophy = filosofi

18. Influence = mempengaruhi

19. Mandatory = wajib

20. Improving = meningkatkan

21. Laborers = Buruh

# IDEAS OF PARAGRAPH #

Paragraph 1 :

Perhaps it was his own lack of adequate schooling that inspired Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated

Paragraph 2 :

While Serving in the Massachusetts legislature, he signed an historic education bill that set up a state board of education

Paragraph 3 :

Mann’s Ideas about school reform were developed and distributed in the twelve annual reports to the state of massachusetts that he wrote during his tenure as secretary of education

Paragraph 4 :

During his lifetime, Horace Mann worked tirelessly to extend educational opportunities to agrarian families and the children of poor laborers

# SUMMARY THE PASSAGE #

Perhaps it was his own lack of adequate schooling that inspired Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated, While serving in the Massachusetts legislature, he signed an historic education bill that set up a state board of education, Mann’s ideas about school reform were developed and distributed in the twelve annual reports to the state of Massachusetts that he wrote during his tenure as secretary of education, During his lifetime, Horace Mann worked tirelessly to extend educational opportunities to agrarian families and the children of poor laborers.

# ANSWER of QUESTIONS #

1.What is the best title of the passage?

= The Massachusetts State Board of Education

2.Why does the author mention Horace Mann’s early life?

=Because it served as the inspiration for his later work in education

3.What is the synonym of the word strugglesin paragraph 1?

= difficult times

4.What does the word therein paragraph 2 refer to?

= the Massachusetts legislature

5.What does the word mandatoryin paragraph mean?

= Required

6.According to the passage, what is your opinion about Horace Mann’s influence on American education?

= Horace Mann’s influence on American education was very great.

7.Mention several things about Horace Mann advocation to American education!

= a state board of education.

8.What did the nation do to The reforms that Horace Mann achieved?

= were later adopted by the nation as a model.

9.What is your conclusion about Horace Mann personality?

= Study as much as possible.

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Lesson 6

# READING COMPREHENSION 6 #

In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America known as New Amsterdam, negotiated with Canarsee chiefs for the purchase of Manhattan Island for merchandise valued at sixty guilders or about $24.12. He purchased the island for the Dutch West India Company.

The next year, Fort Amsterdam was built by the company at the extreme southern tip of the island. Because attempts to encourage Dutch immigration were not immediately successful, offers, generous by the standards of the era, were extended throughout Europe. Consequently, the settlement became the most heterogeneous of the North American colonies. By 1637, the fort had expanded into the village of New Amsterdam, other small communities had grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, and New Amsterdam began to prosper, developing characteristics of religious and linguistic tolerance unusual for the times. By 1643, it was reported that eighteen different languages could be heard in New Amsterdam alone.

Among the multilingual settlers was a large group of English colonists from Connecticut and Massachusetts who supported the English King’s claim to all of New Netherlands set out in a charter that gave the territory to his brother James, Duke of New York. In 1644, when the English sent a formidable fleet of warships into the New Amsterdam harbor, Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without resistance.

When the English acquired the island, the village of New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the Duke. By the onset of the Revolution, New York City was already a bustling commercial center. After the war, it was selected as the first capital of the United States. Although the government was eventually moved, first to Philadelphia and then to Washington, D.C., New York maintained its status. It became a haven for pirates who conspired with leading merchants to exchange supplies for their ships in return for a share in the plunder. As a colony, New York exchanged many agricultural products for English manufactured goods. In addition, trade with the West Indies prospered. Three centuries after his initial trade with the Native Americans, Minuit’s tiny investment was worth more that seven billion dollars.

# NEW VOCABULARIES #

1. Guilders : rupiah

2. Built : membangun

3. Encourage : mendorong

4. Immediately : dengan segera

5. Settlement : penyelesaian

6. Heterogeneous : beraneka ragam

7. Prosper : berhasil baik

8. Linguistic : ilmu bahasa

9. Territory : wilayah

10. Formidable : berat

11. Fleet : armada

12. Wharships : kapal perang

13. Resistance : perlawanan

14. Acquired : yang diperoleh

15. Merchants : saudaga

16. Butling : kapal pelayan

17. Agricultural : berhubungan dengan pertanian

18. Plunder : merampas

19. Prospered : menjadi makmur

# IDEAS OF PARAGRAPH #

Paragraph 1:

negotiate for the purchase of the island manhattan for merchandise, he bought the island for the Dutch West India Company.

Paragraph 2:

fort has been extended to the village of New Amsterdam, the other small communities have grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant Bouwery, In 1643, it was reported that eighteen different languages ​​can be heard in New Amsterdam alone.

Paragraph 3:

Dutch stipulated in the charter that gives the region to his brother James, Duke of New York. when Britain sent armada of warships to the port of New Amsterdam, the Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without a fight.

Paragraph 4:

When the British acquired the island, the village of New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the Duke. New York City has become a bustling commercial center was selected as the first capital of the United States

# SUMMARY THE PASSAGE #

In 1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlement in North America, for the purchase of Manhattan Island for merchandise worth sixty guilders or about $ 24.12. The following year, Fort Amsterdam was built by the company at the south end, In 1637, the castle has been extended to the village of New Amsterdam, the other small communities have grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant Bouwery, and New Amsterdam began to prosper. In 1643, it was reported that eighteen different languages ​​can be heard in New Amsterdam alone. When the British acquired the island, the village of New Amsterdam was renamed New York in honor of the Duke. New York City has become a bustling commercial center, and was elected as the first capital of the United States. Three centuries after the initial trade with the Native Americans, a small investment that Minuit is worth over seven billion dollars.

# ANSWER of QUESTIONS #

1. What is the best title for this passage?

= History Of New York City

2. What did the Native Americans gain in exchange for their island?

= Minuit’s tiny investment was worth more that seven billion dollars

3. Where was New Amsterdam located?

= In North America

4. What does the author mean by the statement :

= Because attempts to encourage Dutch immigration were not immediately successful, offers, generous by the standards of the era, were extended throughout Europe?
Immigration to the new world required that the Dutch and other Europeans wait until opportunities were available

5. What is the meaning of the word heterogeneous in paragraph 2?

= Divers character or contents

6. Why were so many languages spoken in New Amsterdam?

= Other small communities had grown up around it, including New Haarlem and Stuyvesant’s Bouwery, and New Amsterdam began to prosper, developing characteristics of religious and linguistic tolerance unusual for the times.

7. What is the meaning of the word formidable in paragraph 3?

= To fear, inspiring to fear, powerfull, large, powerfull

8. What does the word itin paragraph 4 refer to?

= New york city

9. What city was the first capital of the new Unite states?

= New york city

10. When was Manhattan valued at $7 billion?

= Three centuries after his initial trade with the Native Americans

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Lesson 4

# READING COMPREHENSION 4 #

The body of an adult insect is subdivided into three sections, including a head, a three-segment thorax, and segmented abdomen. Ordinarily, the thorax bears three pairs of legs and a single or double pair of wings. The vision of most adult insects is specialized through two large compound eyes and multiple simple eyes.

Features of an insect’s mouth parts are used in classifying insects into types. Biting mouth parts, called mandibles, such as the mouth parts found in grasshoppers and beetles, are common among insects. Behind the mandibles are located the maxillae, or lower jaw parts, which serve to direct food into the mouth between the jaws. A labrum above and one below are similar to another animal’s upper and lower lips. In an insect with a sucking mouth function, the mandibles, maxillae, labrum, and labium are modified in such a way that they constitute a tube through which liquid such as water, blood, or flower nectar can be drawn. In a butterfly or moth, this coiled drinking tube is called the proboscis because of its resemblance, in miniature, to the trunk of an elephant or a very large nose. Composed chiefly of modified maxillae fitted together, the insect’s proboscis can be flexed and extended to reach nectar deep in a flower. In mosquitoes or aphids, mandibles and maxillae are modified to sharp stylets with which the insect can drill through surfaces like human or vegetable skin membranes to reach juice. In a housefly, the expanding labium forms a spongelike mouth pad that it can use to stamp over the surface of food, sopping up food particles and juices.

Insects, the most numerous creatures on our planet, are also them most adaptable. They require little food because they are small. They easily find shelter and protection in small crevices in trees and surface geological formations. Species of insects can evolve quickly because of their rapid reproduction cycle; they live in every climate, some making their homes in the frozen Arctic regions and many others choosing the humid, warm, and nutrient-rich rain forest environment. An active part of the natural food cycle, insects provide nutrition for animals and devour waste products of other life forms.

# NEW VOCABULARIES #

1. Subdivided: terbagi lagi
2. Thorax: bagian tubuh yang tersusun dari tulang dada, ruas tulang belakang.
3. Abdomen: perut
4. Ordinarily: biasanya
5. Pairs: pasangan
6. Vision: penglihatan
7. Mandibles: rahang
8. Jaw: kekangan
9. Labrum: Tipe mulut serangga
10. Above: atas
11. Below: bawah
12. Modified: dimodifikasi
13. Drawn: menarik
14. Coiled: digulung
15. Proboscis: belalai
16. Resemblance: kemiripan
17. Trunk: peti
18. Surfaces: permukaan
19. Spongelike: makhluk air sejenis sepon
20. Sopping: membasahi
21. Numerous: banyak
22. Crevices: retak
23. Evolve: menyusun
24. Humid: lembah
25. Devour: menelan
# IDEAS OF PARAGRAPH #
Paragraph 1: The body of an adult insect is subdivided into three sections, including a head, a three-segment thorax, and segmented abdomen. Which is can distinguish the immature insects.
Paragraph 2: Each type of insect mouth has a different function. For example , an awl or a sucker mouth serves to suck the nectar of flowers . But the mosquito sucker mouth serves to penetrate the human skin.
Paragraph 3: Number of insects more than humans on earth. Estimated 30-80 million species. Because insects can easily breed. Insects is omnipresent part of our earth.
# SUMMARY THE PASSAGE #
The body of an adult insect has several sections and features that vary in every type of insect. These features have different functions among insects. Insects also are adaptable animals and require less food to fill the tiny body. Species of insects can evolve quickly because of their rapid reproduction cycle; they live in every climate, some making their homes in the frozen Arctic regions and many others choosing the humid, warm, and nutrient-rich rain forest environment.
# ANSWER of QUESTIONS #
1. What is the main idea for this pessage ?
= The structure of an insect
2. According to the author, how are insects classified?
= By the structure of the mouth
3. The word common in paragraph 2 is used. From the context, what do you think this word means?
= normal
4. In paragraph 2, the author compares labrum and labium to
= an upper and lower lip
5. Align with the passage, what is the proboscis?
= a tube constructed of modified maxillae
6. What are the name of insects which have mandibles and maxillae that have been modified to sharp stylets?
= mosquitoes
7. The phrase drill through in paragraph 2 is used. From the context, what do you think this words mean?
= penetrate
8. What does the word it in paragraph 2 refer to?
= mouth
9. What do you think of the purpose of this passage?
= to inform

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Reading comprehension 5

During the nineteenth century, women in the United States organized and participated in a large number of reform movements, including movements to reorganize the prison system, improve education, ban the sale of alcohol, grant rights to people who were denied them, and, most importantly, free slaves. Some women saw similarities in the social status of women and slaves. Women like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone were not only feminists who fought for the rights of women but also fervent abolitionists who fought to do away with slavery. These brave people were social leaders who supported the rights of both women and blacks. They were fighting against a belief that voting should be tied to land ownership, and because land was owned by men, and in some cases by their widows, only those who held the greatest stake in government, that is the male landowners, were considered worthy of the vote. Women did not conform to the requirements.
A number of male abolitionists, including William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, also supported the rights of women to speak and to participate equally with men in antislavery activities. Probably more than any other movement, abolitionism offered women a previously denied entry into politics. They became involved primarily in order to better their living conditions and improve the conditions of others. However, they gained the respect of those they convinced and also earned the right to be considered equal citizens.
When the civil war between the North and the South ended in 1865, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1868 and 1870 granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women. Discouraged but resolved, feminists worked tirelessly to influence more and more women to demand the right to vote. In 1869, the Wyoming Territory had yielded to demands by feminists, but the states on the East Coast resisted more stubbornly than before. A women’s suffrage bill had been presented to every Congress since 1878, but it continually failed to pass until 1920, when the Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote.

#TRANSLATE :

Selama abad kesembilan belas, wanita di Amerika Serikat yang diselenggarakan dan berpartisipasi dalam sejumlah besar gerakan reformasi, termasuk gerakan untuk menata kembali sistem penjara, meningkatkan pendidikan, melarang penjualan alkohol, memberikan hak kepada orang-orang yang ditolak mereka, dan yang paling penting, budak bebas. Beberapa wanita melihat kesamaan status sosial perempuan dan budak. Wanita seperti Elizabeth Cady Stanton dan Lucy Batu tidak hanya feminis yang memperjuangkan hak-hak perempuan, tetapi juga perbudakan sungguh-sungguh yang berjuang untuk membunuh dengan perbudakan. Orang-orang pemberani adalah pemimpin sosial yang mendukung hak-hak perempuan dan kulit hitam. Mereka berjuang melawan keyakinan bahwa pemungutan suara harus diikat dengan kepemilikan tanah, dan karena tanah milik laki-laki, dan dalam beberapa kasus oleh janda mereka, hanya mereka yang memegang saham terbesar dalam pemerintah, yang adalah pemilik tanah laki-laki, yang dianggap layak suara. Wanita tidak sesuai dengan persyaratan.
Sejumlah perbudakan laki-laki, termasuk William Lloyd Garrison dan Wendell Phillips, juga mendukung hak-hak perempuan untuk berbicara dan berpartisipasi secara sama dengan laki-laki dalam kegiatan antislavery. Mungkin lebih dari setiap gerakan lainnya, Abolisionisme menawarkan wanita entri ditolak sebelumnya ke politik. Mereka terlibat terutama dalam rangka untuk lebih kondisi hidup mereka dan meningkatkan kondisi orang lain. Namun, mereka mendapatkan rasa hormat dari orang-orang yang mereka yakin dan juga mendapatkan hak untuk dianggap sebagai warga yang sama.
Ketika perang saudara antara Utara dan Selatan berakhir pada tahun 1865, XIV dan Kelimabelas Amandemen Konstitusi diadopsi tahun 1868 dan 1870 diberikan kewarganegaraan dan hak pilih untuk kulit hitam tetapi tidak untuk wanita. Berkecil tetapi diselesaikan, feminis bekerja tanpa lelah untuk mempengaruhi lebih banyak perempuan untuk menuntut hak untuk memilih. Pada tahun 1869, Wilayah Wyoming telah menyerah kepada tuntutan oleh kaum feminis, tapi negara-negara di Pantai Timur menolak keras kepala lebih dari sebelumnya. RUU hak pilih A perempuan telah disampaikan kepada setiap Kongres sejak 1878, tetapi terus gagal lulus sampai 1920, ketika sembilan belas Amandemen diberikan hak untuk memilih perempuan.

VOCABULARIES:

Ban : melarang
Stake : tiang
Prison system : sistem penjara
Grant rights : memberikan hak
Denied : ditolak
Importantly : penting
Fought : berjuang
Fervent abolitionist : perbudakan sungguh-sungguh
Ownership : kepemilikan
Landowners : pemilik tanah
Male abolitionst : perbudakan laki-laki
Movement : pergerakan
Previously : menawarkan
Involved : terlibat
Gained the respect : mendapatkan rasa hormat
Adopted : di adopsi
Suffrage : hak pilih
Tirelessly : tanpa lelah
Influence : mempengaruh

Yielded : menyerah

SUMMARY:

Paragraf 1:

in the nineteenth century, women in the United States participated in a large number of the reform movement to restructure the prison system, improving education, prohibiting the sale of alcohol, and give rights to people who are in decline, and most importantly free slaves.

Paragraf 2:

a number of men, including William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips, supporting the rights of women to participate equally with men in the antislavery activities.

Paragraf 3:

by the time the war ended in 1865 suffrage given to blacks but not for women, but there are fighters rights of women who are working hard tirelessly so that it affects more women to demand the right to choose.

QUESTION:

1. With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?
A. The Wyoming Territory
B. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments
C. Abolitionists
D. Women’s suffrage
2. The word ban in paragraph 1 most nearly means to
A. Encourage            C. prohibit
B. Publish                 D. limit
3. The word primarily in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
A. above all             C. finally
B. Somewhat          D. always
4. What had occurred shortly after the Civil War?
A. The Wyoming Territory was admitted to the Union
B. A women’s suffrage bill was introduced in
Congress
C. The eastern states resisted the end of the war
D. Black people were granted the right to vote
5. The word suffrage in paragraph 3 could best be replaced by which of the following?
A. pain                    C. freedom from bondage
B. Citizenship          D. the right to vote
6. The word it in paragraph 3 refers to
A. bill                    C. Nineteenth Amendment
B. Congress         D. vote
7. What does the Nineteenth Amendment guarantee?
A. Voting rights for blacks
B. Citizenship for blacks
C. Voting rights for women
D. Citizenship for women
8. When were women allowed to vote throughout the United States?
A. After 1866          C. After 1878
B. After 1870          D. After 1920